2017-10-02 14:00


  Social psychology is a fascinating topic that has yielded a great deal of research on how people behave in groups. In many cases, the results of several famous experiments contradict how you would expect people to act in social situations.


  Here are ten things that you should know about social psychology:


  1. When a number of people witness something such as an accident, the more people that are present the less likely it is that someone will step forward to help. This is known as the bystander effect.

  1. 当有一堆人见证事情产生时,越多人在场,越少人会上条件供辅佐。这就是闻名的傍观者效应。

  2. People will go to great, and sometimes dangerous, lengths to obey authority figures. In his famous obedience experiments, psychologist Stanley Milgram found that people would be willing to deliver a potentially fatal electrical shock to another person when ordered to by the experimenters.

  2. 人们倾向于听从伟人,偶然乃至是伤害的精心极力的去跟随那些势力巨子人士。在闻名的听从尝试中,生理学家Stanley Milgram 发明人们在被尝试者呼吁后,也许会用有隐藏致命性的电击去电其他人。

  3. Most people will go along with the group, even if they think the group is wrong. In Solomon Asch's conformity experiments, people were asked to judge which was the longest of three lines. When other members of the group picked the wrong line, participants were more likely to choose the same line.

  3. 许多人会听从团队(中的大都人),尽量他们以为那些是错的。在Solomon Asch的同等性尝试中,人们被要求去判定三根线中最长的一根。当团队中的其余成员都选了错误的那根线时,尝试工具更也许和他们做出一样的选择。

  4. Situational variables can play a major role in our social behavior. In the Stanford Prison Experiment, psychologist Philip Zimbardo discovered that participants would take on the roles given to them to such an extreme that the experiment had to be discontinued after just six days. Those placed in the roles of prison guards began to abuse their power, while those in the role of the prisoners became anxious and stressed.

  4. 景象变量在我们的交际举动中饰演着很重要的脚色。在斯坦福的牢狱尝试中,生理学家Philip Zimbardo发明参加者在饰演了被分派的脚色(阶下囚和保镳)后逐渐变得极度,因此尝试不得不在六天后终止。被分派到牢狱保镳脚色的人开始滥用权利,而饰演阶下囚的人变得焦急且压力重重。

  5. People typically look for things that confirm their existing beliefs and ignore information that contradicts what they already think. This is known as expectation confirmation.

  5. 人们凡是会探求可以或许确认他们已经存在的信心的对象,而忽略了那些和他们以是为的相反的工作。这就是所谓的祈望确认。

  6. When we categorize information about social groups, we tend to exaggerate differences between groups and minimize the differences within groups. This is part of the reason why stereotypes and prejudice exist.

  6. 当我们把交际群体的信息分类时,我们倾向于强调组间的差别并缩小组内的差别。这也是为什么陋习和成见会存在的缘故起因之一。

  7. Our attitudes, or how we evaluate different things including people, ideas, and objects, can be both explicit and implicit. Explicit attitudes are the ones that we form consciously and of which we are fully aware. Implicit attitudes, on the other hand, form and work unconsciously yet still have a powerful influence on our behavior.

  7. 我们的立场,可能说我们是怎么权衡事物好比人,设法可能物品,是分为显性熟悉和隐性熟悉的。显性立场就是我们故意识形成并能充实感觉到的。另一方面,隐性立场,是在我们有时识的环境下形成和事变的,然而对我们的举动有异常明显的影响。

  8. Our perceptions of other people are often based upon things such as expected roles, social norms, and social categorizations. Since we expect people who are in a certain role or part of a particular social group to behave in a particular way, our initial impressions of a person frequently rely on these mental shortcuts to make fast judgments of how we expect people to behave.

  8. 我们对其他人的观点凡是是在脚色祈望,社会类型和社会分类的基本上形成的。由于我们本来祈望一小我私人具有某种范例的举动方法或以为他是某类交际圈里的一份子,我们对他的初始印象就很洪流平的依赖这样的思想捷径,然后才对这小我私人该当的举动作出快速判定。

  9. When explaining behavior, we tend to attribute our own good fortune to internal factors and negative outcomes to external forces. When it comes to other people, however, we typically attribute their actions to internal characteristics. For example, if we get a bad grade on a paper, it's the teacher's fault; if a classmate gets a bad grade, it's because he didn't study hard enough. This tendency is known as the actor-observer bias.

  9. 当表明(本身的)举动时,我们倾向于把本身的成就归类到内因,并把欠好的功效归于外因浸染。说到别人时,我们又老是把他们的举动归于内涵性格。好比,假如我测验没考好,这是先生的错,假如我同窗没考好,那必然是由于他没有好勤进修。这种生理就叫举动者-傍观者成见。